Idealism (pure subjectivity): The philosophy that consciousness is all and all is consciousness
Idealism states that consciousness constitutes the fundamental reality, or is primary. Some versions of idealism admit the independent existence of material objects, others deny that material objects exist independently of human perception.
Anaximander (Greek philosopher, c. 611 BC – c. 547 BC) may have been the first idealist philosopher. Only one fragment of his writing has been preserved but he seems to have thought that the original and primary substance (which could be consciousness) is a boundless something from which all things arise and to which they all return. He was struck by the fact that the world presents us with a series of opposites, of which the most primary are hot and cold, wet and dry. He thought of these opposites as being “separated out” from a substance which was originally undifferentiated.
Plato (Greek philosopher, c. 428 BC – c. 348 BC) is often considered the first idealist philosopher, chiefly because of his metaphysical doctrine of Forms. Plato considered the universal Idea or Form, sometimes called an archetype–for example, redness or goodness–to be more real than a particular expression of the form–a red object or a good deed. According to Plato, the world of changing experience is unreal, and the Idea or Form–which does not change and which can be known only by reason–constitutes true reality. Plato did not recognize mystical experience as a route to true reality, only reason.
Idealism was first expounded by Plato in his cave allegory in The Republic (c. 360 BC) (see, e.g., Julia Annas, An Introduction to Plato’s Republic,1981, p. 252). The cave is a metaphor for the mind. Prisoners are in an underground cave with a fire behind them, bound so they can see only the shadows on the wall in front of them, cast by puppets manipulated behind them. They think that this is all there is to see; if released from their bonds and forced to turn around to the fire and the puppets, they become bewildered and are happier left in their original state. They are even angry with anyone who tries to tell them how pitiful their position is. Only a few can bear to realize that the shadows are only shadows cast by the puppets; and they begin the journey of liberation that leads past the fire and right out of the cave into the real world. At first they are dazzled there, and can bear to see real objects only in reflection and indirectly, but then they can look at them directly in the light of the sun, and can even look at the sun itself.
This allegory is related to idealism in the following way. The cave is the mind. The shadows of the puppets that the prisoners are watching represent their taking over, in unreflective fashion, the second-hand opinions and beliefs that are given to them by parents, society, and religion. The puppets themselves represent the mechanical, unreasoning minds of the prisoners. The light of the fire within the cave provides only partial, distorted illumination from the imprisoned intellects. Liberation begins when the few who turn around get up and go out of the cave. Outside of the cave, the real objects (the Forms) are those in the transcendental realm. In order to see them, the light of the sun, which represents pure reason, is necessary. A similar allegory using today’s symbols would replace the cave with a movie theater, the shadows with the pictures on the screen, the puppets with the film, and the fire with the projector light. The sun is outside, and we must leave the theater to see its light (we must leave the mind).
The next major idealist philosopher was Plotinus (204/5 – 270 AD), who is generally regarded as the founder of Neoplatonism. He was one of the most influential philosophers in antiquity after Plato and Aristotle (who was primarily a philosopher of politics, ethics, and nature). The term “Neoplatonism” is an invention of early 19th century philosophers and was intended to indicate that Plotinus initiated a new phase in the development of the Platonic tradition. The (greatly simplified) basic principles of Neoplatonism are 1) The One (nondual Reality), which is the first principle of all. It is both self-caused and the cause of all dualistic concepts. 2) Intellect, which works with dualistic concepts that are derived from Plato’s Forms. 3) Soul, which is the principle of desire for external objects. These principles are both ultimate ontological realities and explanatory principles.
The eighteenth century British philosopher George Berkeley (1685 – 1753) was one of the major exponents of idealism. He denied the existence of material substance (calling his philosophy immaterialism), and held that the universe consists of God, which is the infinite spirit; of finite spirits including human beings; of ideas that exist only in the minds of spirits; and of nothing else. According to Berkeley, spirits are able to perceive ideas but ideas are inert, without any power to perceive. His most characteristic philosophical doctrine is summarized in the expression “to be is to be perceived.” In other words, to say that a material object exists is to say that the idea of it is perceived by a spirit. Since Berkeley assumed that material objects exist without human spirits to perceive them, the mind that perceives them must be divine rather than human.
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) expounded a form of idealism that he called transcendental idealism. He believed that there is a reality that is independent of human minds (the noumenon, or thing-in-itself), but that is forever unknowable to us. All of our experience, including the experience of our empirical selves (the phenomenon, or thing-as-it-appears), depends on the activity of a transcendental self, also of which we can know nothing.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, also a German philosopher (1770 – 1831), built on the idealist philosophy of Kant, and called his system absolute idealism. He believed that reality is Absolute Mind, Reason, or Spirit. Absolute Mind is universal, while each individual mind is an aspect of it, as is the consciousness and rational activity of each person. Absolute Mind continually develops itself in its quest for its own unification and actualization. For this purpose, it manifests itself as the subjective consciousness of the individual, who undergoes a rational process of development from a purely materialistic and self-centered state to a universal and rational consciousness. In this process, the individual passes through several phases–family, society, state–each of which represents a move from individualism to unity. Human history in general is the progressive movement from bondage to freedom. Such freedom is achieved only as the separate desires of the individual are overcome and integrated into the unified system of the state, in which the will of the individual is replaced by the will of all.
The forms of idealism described above were all formulated by Western philosophers, who almost exclusively depended on rational thought to develop their philosophies. They scarcely took account of the many forms of Eastern philosophy, which are heavily dependent on mystical experience. Furthermore, there was very little recognition of the theories and knowledge that science was developing from the 17th century on.
[box type=”shadow” align=”aligncenter” width=”300″ ]If everything is consciousness, whose consciousness is it? Is there more than one consciousness? If so, what defines a consciousness? If there is more than one consciousness, how do different consciousnesses communicate?[/box]
Solipsism is a form of idealistic philosophy that states that nothing exists that you yourself are not observing. On the other hand, nonsolipsistic idealistic philosophy states that nothing exists unless it is being observed by any conscious observer. Because these are idealistic philosophies, there is no objective reality in either of them. A flaw in both of these views is the assumption that the observer itself is an objective entity. But if there is no objective reality, neither can there be an objective observer.
For our purposes in this section, we shall consider a version of idealism, called monistic idealism, which states that Consciousness and only Consciousness is fundamental and primary. Everything, including all matter and every mind, exists within Consciousness. From this point of view, matter is an emergent feature, or epiphenomenon, of Consciousness, rather than the reverse as in materialism. There are perplexing paradoxes in quantum theory that result from a materialist or a dualist philosophy but that do not arise in an idealistic philosophy.
In this philosophy, Consciousness is Awareness (Noumenon) together with all of the objects of Awareness (phenomenon). The impersonalized, summary statement of monistic idealism is, “I am Consciousness”. We shall see later that all objects of Awareness are really Awareness in disguise. Hence, “I am Consciousness” translates to “I am Awareness”.
Question: Do you agree with the preceding statement? If not, what are you?
This suggests that, in order to realize that we are Awareness, we must first look inward, away from all phenomenal objects. Awareness is not an object and therefore cannot be described conceptually or perceived as an object. My true nature as Awareness can be realized only by looking away from both the conceptual and the perceptual. After we realize this, we will be able to see that Awareness is All that is.
We can adapt Plato’s cave allegory to represent monistic idealism in the following way. The fire is replaced by the light of the sun (pure Awareness) coming in through the entrance to the cave, and the puppets are replaced by archetypal objects within the transcendent realm. The phenomenal world of matter and thoughts is merely the shadow of the archetypes in the light of consciousness. Here, we clearly see a complementarity of phenomenon and Noumenon. To look only at the shadows is to be unaware of Awareness. To be directly aware of Awareness is to realize that the phenomenal world is merely a shadow. The shadow world is what we perceive. Awareness can only be apperceived, i.e., realized by a knowing that is beyond perception. Apperception liberates one from the shackles of the cave, and exposes one to unlimited freedom. Apperception is the verification that consciousness is all there is. More info…